Figure 1.

Detection of GFAP (panel A) and OX42 (panel B) in the dorsal lumbar spinal cords of rats treated, or not, with morphine was performed by fluorescent immunohistochemistry and photomicrographs were acquired by confocal microcopy. Displayed are representative three dimensional images of immunoreactive cells from rats receiving intrathecal saline (i, vi), morphine and intrathecal saline (ii, vii), morphine and intrathecal propentofylline (iii, viii), or intrathecal propentofylline alone (iv, ix). Morphine treatment produced a significant increase in both astrocytic and microglial cell volumes as compared with control. This hypertrophy was attenuated by coadministration of morphine with propentofylline. While propentofylline alone had no effect on GFAP-immunostaining, it significantly enhanced OX42-immunoreactive cell size. Data represent means ± s.e.m. for n = 12–20 cells per rat from n = 3 rats per group. Statistical analyses were performed by a one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc multiple comparison test. The asterisk denotes significant difference from saline-treated rats. * = p < 0.05, ** = p < 0.01, *** = p < 0.001. MS: morphine sulfate; PF: propentofylline; Sal: saline. Scale bar, 30 μm.

Holdridge et al. Molecular Pain 2007 3:7   doi:10.1186/1744-8069-3-7
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